This web site is to help consumers avoid dextrose and maltodextrin especially when the product label claims the product is sugar free, no sugar added or product has 0 kilocalories.
Dextrose is Glucose and Maltodextrin is a polymer of 3-20 Glucose Units.
Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose(

maltodextrins are easily digestible polymers of dextrose sometimes labeled "glucose polymers" contain approximately 4 kilocalories per gram(

Both dextrose and maltodextrin contain 4 kilocalories /gram and are high glycemic index carbohydrates. For example, 1 packet of NutraSweet contains almost 1 gram of dextrose and maltodextrin. The reason NutraSweet can claim it has 0 kilocalories / serving is due to a FDA loophole, where if the number of kilocalories per serving is < 5 , it is legal to put it as 0.
1 solution is to force manufacturers to list the total amount of junk carbohydrates, hydrogenated fats, other fats and kilocalories for the entire package. Other important information to include is the total amount of potentially toxic substances such as arsenic, lead, heterocyclic amines(, Advanced Glycation End products(, pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMP = pathogen-associated molecular patterns:
harmful PAMP molecules in processed foods that may increase risk of diseases such as coronary artery disease and Type 2 diabetes, adherence to the specially designed low PAMP diet for just 1 week caused a significant 18% reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol and an 11% reduction in white blood cell count. Volunteers also lost weight (on average 0.6 kg) and their waist circumference was reduced (average 1.5 cm), during the low PAMP diet, when food is absolutely fresh, including any type of meat, fruit or vegetable, it contains undetectable levels of PAMPs. However, once it has been chopped finely, especially if minced, the PAMP content rises rapidly, day on day, even when stored at refrigeration temperature (, methylmercury(, cadmium and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, 4-Hydroxynonenal is generated in the oxidation of lipids containing polyunsaturated omega-6 acyl groups, such as arachidonic or linoleic groups( , and
Tyramine:Tyramine acts as a catecholamine releasing agent. Notably, it is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, resulting in only non-psychoactive peripheral sympathomimetic effects. A hypertensive crisis can result, however, from ingestion of tyramine-rich foods in conjunction with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)(
( and have a list of Tyramin/Tyramine rich foods
A breakdown of the different fatty acids for the entire package should be given as well, as they are distinct molecules with different effects( , and

Both dextrose and maltodextrin can be digested by the bacteria in the mouth and cause dental caries:
though maltodextrins appeared to be significantly less acidogenic than 10% sucrose, they can lead to a substantial drop in plaque pH and may, therefore, have a potential to cause demineralisation of enamel(

Western diets that include significant amounts of the additive maltodextrin, a filler compound added to the sweeteners Splenda and Equal, may contribute to an increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease Maltodextrin (MDX), a Ubiquitous Dietary Additive in Western Diets, Enhances Biofilm Formation and Adhesivness of E. coli( search for maltodextrin)

You have to read the labels: products like NutraSweet that contain dextrose and maltodextrin are NOT sugar free and provide 4 kilocalories /gram in the form of high glycemic index carbohydrates, that can stick to the teeth and promote the growth of bacteria that cause dental decay. 5 packets of Equal or NutraSweet provide 5 x 4 = 20 kilocalories NOT 5 x 0 = 0 kilocalories as the manufacturer would like you to believe with the full consent of the FDA.
Some Manufacturers that provide honestly 0 kilocalories, sugar free products:

Evidence shows low energy sweeteners, such as saccharin, aspartame, sucralose and stevia help reduce energy intake and body weight(
  • American Health Foods sell pure sucralose products
    Including Liquid Sucralose: water, sucralose (25% of total weight) with White Pivot-spout Plastic Caps also known as Turret Caps, which allow easily pouring into a smaller bottle with a droplet without spilling. The smaller bottle with a droplet can be easily carried and allows easy control of the number of drops. Many people find it ideal to sweeten Tea, Coffee or Cacao.
  • , tel (616) 656.9928 , 4683 50th St SE, Kentwood, Michigan 49512, cost $55/Kg + shipping for 1 Kg , $50/Kg + shipping for > 10 Kg(
  • or sell Luo Han Guo Extract 80% Mogrosides, which is 300 times sweeter than sugar, which means to get the sweetness of 50g sucrose/liter of H2O, you would have to use 50g/300 = 0.167g / liter of H2O. There is no guarantee that 0.5g/L would give you the sweetness of 150g sucrose/liter.
    The plant is best known for its fruit, commonly called luo han guo or luo han kuo
    Luo Han Guo Extract 80% Powder( and
    Additional References:

    Some sources of Stevia Extract:
    includes a professional measuring spoon( and
    Erythritol attenuates the diabetic oxidative stress through modulating glucose metabolism and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats(
    Erythritol acts as an antioxidant in vivo and may help protect against hyperglycemia-induced vascular damage(
    Some sources of erythritol, a 4 carbon sugar alcohol that gives 0.2 kilocalories/gram (
    iherb sells Pure Erythritol Crystals ( if you use code cam521, you get 5% discount on your 1st order
    ( and search for erythritol)
    ( and

  • iherb also sells KCl/Potassium Chloride Powder, useful in maintaining low blood pressure : if you use code cam521, you get 5% discount on your 1st order
    (another source is
    (another source is

    ratio of sodium-to-potassium in subjects' urine was a much stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease than sodium or potassium alone(
    intake ratio of sodium to potassium ions bears a much stronger association with subsequent development of cardiovascular disease than does consumption of either alone( and
    animal study found a high-salt/sodium ions diet might also contribute to liver damage in adults and developing embryos, treating damaged cells with vitamin C appeared to partially counter the ill effects of excess salt(
    Low chloride levels in the blood is an independent indicator of mortality risk in people with hypertension. After analysing data from almost 13,000 patients with high blood pressure, followed up over 35 years, The group with the lowest level of chloride in their blood had a 20% higher mortality rate compared to the other subjects.(

    Some sources of Levomefolic acid (INN) (also known as 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid or 5-MTHF and l-methylfolate and sold under the brand names Metafolin and Deplin) the natural, active form of folic acid (
    ( if you use code cam521, you get 5% discount on your 1st order

    Some sources of Trimethylglycine(

    Some sources of taurine(

    Some sources of Potassium Sorbate(

    Some sources of L-Theanine/L-Teanin(

    Some sources of bulk CaCO3/Calcium Carbonate/Kalciumkarbonat/Calciumcarbonat(

    Some sources of Psyllium Husks

    Some sources of unstuffed Vine grape leaves liives(
    ( 8773015522)
    ( 1-800-222-0458 )
    ( , and web site entry for credit card unencrypted)
    Middle East Market, 2054 San Pablo, Berkeley, California 94702, 5107048800, about 50m south of the southwest intersection of San Pablo and University
    Berkeley Bowl, 2020 Oregon St, Berkeley, California 94703, 5108436929, M-Sat 9:00-20:00, Sun 10:00-19:00
    Some sources of Instant NonFat Non-Fat Dry Milk, requires no refrigeration:
    Smart and Final 901-933 Broadway, Oakland, California 94607 (Apr 2014, 1.36Kg cost $9.79 , 2Kg would cost $14.4) (Jun 2014, 1.36Kg cost $11.49 , 2Kg would cost $16.9) (Jul 2014, 1.36Kg cost $11.99 , 2Kg would cost $17.64) (Jun 2015, 1.36Kg cost $9.89 if you buy > 3 1.36Kg bags, 2Kg would cost $14.54)
    Some sources of L-arabinose, some pubmed references provided below:
    L-arabinose appears as white crystal powder ; tastes sweet, 1 M solution of L-arabinose has the approximate sweetness of 0.35M solution of sucrose
    (L-arabinose selectively inhibits intestinal sucrase in an uncompetitive manner and suppresses glycemic response after sucrose ingestion in animals(,
    In the human studies, supplementation with 4% l-arabinose produced 11% lower glucose peak, 33% lower and delayed insulin peak, 23% reduction in the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin, a 23% lower and delayed C-peptide peak, a 9% reduction in the iAUC for C-peptide, a 53% increase in the iAUC for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and a 28% reduction in the iAUC for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. No effects on triacylglycerol, gastrointestinal symptoms, appetite ratings, or energy intake were observed.(,
    L-arabinose feeding prevents increases due to dietary sucrose in lipogenic enzymes and triacylglycerol levels in rats fed 0-30 g sucrose/100 g diets containing 0-1 g L-arabinose/100 g for 10 d (,
    Inhibition by Natural Dietary Substances of Gastrointestinal Absorption of Starch and Sucrose in Rats and Pigs(,
    A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge(
    ) (

    Sale items from

    Some references and sources of Vitamin K2:
    simultaneous excess of calcium in 1 part of the body (arteries), and lack in another (bones), which may occur even in spite of calcium supplementation, is known as the Calcium Paradox, among K vitamins, the long-chain types of K2 (MK-7 through MK-9) are the most important for efficiently preventing excessive calcium accumulation in the arteries (
    Neuroscientist Patrik Verstreken, associated with VIB and KU Leuven, succeeded in undoing the effect of 1 of the genetic defects that leads to Parkinson's using vitamin K2. When the flies were given vitamin K2, the energy production in their mitochondria was restored and the insects' ability to fly improved. The researchers were also able to determine that the energy production was restored because the vitamin K2 had improved electron transport in the mitochondria. This in turn led to improved energy production.(

    Some additional information about artificial sweeteners:

    Best Fit Curves of sweetness vs concentration of artificial sweeteners:

  • sucralose(swiit/sucralosegraf.jpg)
  • cyclamate(swiit/cyclamategraf.jpg)
  • aspartame(swiit/apmgraf.jpg)
    From Curves of sweetness vs concentration of sucralose, cyclamate and aspartame, you can see that the maximum sweetness you can get is the sweetness of 130g-150g sucrose/liter of H2O. This is achieved at an approximate concentration of 0,4g/L for sucralose, 5g-6g/L for cyclamate and 1,2g/L for aspartame. Thus if you use sucralose from , tel (616) 656.9928 ( , you would need < 1g to sweeten 2 Liters of soft drinks, which would cost < 5 cents. Also, sucralose is stable in H2O, whereas aspartame, which is polymer, decomposes over a period of several months into the monomers L-aspartic Acid, L-Fenylalanine and methanol.

    Chemical structures of artificial sweeteners:

  • sucralose(swiit/sucralose_chemical_formula.gif)
  • aspartame(swiit/aspartame.png)

    The above references show that artificial sweeteners that are not sugar alcohols exhibit a non-linear sweetness vs concentration relationship. As the concentration increases, the sweetness increases at a decreasing rate and eventually saturates. The statement sweetener A is 100 times sweeter than sucrose is deceiving. What it really means is to get the sweetness of 50g sucrose/liter of H2O, you would have to use 50g/100 = 0.5g of sweetener A / liter of H2O. There is no guarantee that 3 x 0.5g/L = 1.5g/L would give you the sweetness of 150g sucrose/liter.
    For most artificial sweeteners, no matter how much you use, you cannot exceed the sweetness of 200g sucrose/liter.

  • Onset of sweetness plays a role in the sweetness sensation. For example, acesulfame-K has a fast onset of sweetness. By combining acesulfame-K with other sweeteners, you can get a fast onset and long duration of sweetness.

    Some Scientific findings related to how taste is processed:

    Some Scientific findings related to chemicals in modern foods, incuding advanced glycation end products (AGEs):

    Link between foie gras prepared from goose or duck liver and the type of amyloid found in rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis: Foie gras is a culinary delicacy derived from massively enlarged fatty livers of ducks and geese. It is produced by gorging the fowl over several weeks. Amyloidosis is a disease process involving the deposit of normal or mutated proteins that have become misfolded. In this unstable state, such proteins form hair-like fibers, or fibrils, that are deposited into vital organs like the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas and brain. This process leads to organ failure and, eventually, death. There are many types of amyloid-related diseases in addition to rheumatoid arthritis, such as Alzheimers disease, adult-onset (type-2) diabetes and an illness related to multiple myeloma called primary or AL amyloidosis(
    Clinical trial shows that replacing saturated animal fats with omega-6 polyunsaturated vegetable fats is linked to an increased risk of death among patients with heart disease(
    What a surprise, it has been known for eons that omega-6 provides the raw material for pro-inflammatory products, while omega-3 provides the raw material for anti-inflammatory products. The meat of factory farmed grain fed domestic animals is super rich in omega-6 and very poor in omega-3.
    Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products(
    For the 13% who are carriers of the particular APOA5 gene variant who ate > 6% of total kilocalories from omega-6s had a 21% increase in triglyceride levels, as well as an approximately 34% elevation of certain atherogenic lipoprotein particles in the blood. Carriers who consumed < 6% of total kilocalories from omega-6s did not show a significant increase in the lipid levels that are risk factors for heart disease. In contrast to omega-6s, higher consumption of omega-3s decreased triglyceride and atherogenic lipoprotein particle levels in the blood, regardless of a person's APOA5 gene variant.(
    mice on high soybean oil, which is rich in omega-6 fatty acids, diet showed increased levels of weight gain and diabetes compared to mice on a high fructose diet or high coconut oil diet(
    Some healthy omega-6 vegetable oils may actually increase risk of heart disease(
    a vegetarian diet has led to a mutation that, if they stray from a balanced omega-6 to omega-3 diet, may make people more susceptible to inflammation, and by association, increased risk of heart disease and colon cancer(
    On the other hand, Aspirin is able to modify an inflammatory enzyme to stop forming molecules that propagate inflammation and instead produce molecules from omega-3 fatty acids, like resolvin D3, that help inflammation to end. These resolvins shut off, or resolve the inflammation that underlies destructive conditions such as inflammatory lung disease, heart disease, and arthritis. Resolvin D3 from the omega-3 fatty acid DHA or 22:6(n-3) docosahexaenoic acid , persists longer at sites of inflammation than either resolvin D1 or resolvin D2 in the natural resolution of inflammation in mice( and
    Researchers have found that 6 essential oils, from thyme, clove, rose, eucalyptus, fennel and bergamot, can suppress inflammation the inflammatory COX-2 enzyme, in a manner similar to resveratrol(, the chemical linked with the health benefits of red wine. They also identified that the chemical carvacrol( was primarily responsible for this suppressive activity(
    80% of antibiotics used in north america are for factory farmed grain fed domestic animals, they promote antibiotic resistant organisms and we all pay for it. It is time to ban the use of antibiotics in factory farmed grain fed domestic animals and put a sales tax > 100% on meat of factory farmed grain fed domestic animals (
    methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain in humans originally came from cattle, ST398 strains evolved the ability to resist methicillin before they crossed over into humans(

    fried fish: risk of developing heart failure was lower for postmenopausal women who frequently ate baked or broiled fish, but higher for those who ate more fried fish Not all fish are equal, and how you prepare it really matters When you fry fish, you not only lose a lot of the benefits, you likely add some things related to the cooking process that are harmful (I cook fish using a pressure cooker)(

    processed and fried foods: Food fried in vegetable oil may contain a highly toxic compound, HNE (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal), which forms in the oil, 4-Hydroxynonenal is generated in the oxidation of lipids containing polyunsaturated omega-6 acyl groups, such as arachidonic or linoleic groups( and

    Toxic aldehydes detected in reheated oil. These toxic compounds can be found in some oils, such as sunflower oil, when heated at a suitable temperature for frying.(
    Eating more whole fruits, particularly blueberries, grapes and apples, is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with greater fruit juice consumption having an adverse effect, can increase chances of contracting the disease(
    AGE = advanced glycation end product
    Cooking methods that create a crust produce advanced glycation end products (AGEs). And AGEs are associated with plaque formation, the kind we see in cardiovascular disease(
    cutting back on the consumption of processed and fried foods, which are high in toxins called Advanced Glycation End products, can reduce inflammation and actually help restore the body's natural defenses regardless of age or health status(
    How your food is cooked may be as important to your health as the food itself advanced glycation end products (AGEs), are absorbed into the body through the consumption of grilled, fried, or broiled animal products, such as meats and cheeses.( or
    Modest cut in foods high in Advanced Glycation End products may improve insulin resistance in adults with diabetes. Advanced Glycation End products were found to be elevated in most grilled, fried, or baked foods. subjects with diabetes assigned to the AGE-restricted diet had a 35% decrease in blood insulin levels, well beyond that achieved by their previous therapeutic regimen. An AGE-restricted diet emphasizes poached or stewed foods, such as mashed potatoes instead of fries, stewed chicken instead of grilled chicken, and boiled eggs instead of fried eggs(
    Restriction of diet-derived advanced glycation end products not only blocks the progression of atherosclerosis and renal injury, but also improves insulin resistance in animal models. Advanced glycation end products-poor diets reduce serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with diabetes or chronic renal failure(
    Glycation of low density lipoprotein by methylglyoxal increases atherogenicity, a possible contributor to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetes, MGmin-LDL is created by the addition of sugar groups to normal LDL cholesterol, a process called glycation, making LDL smaller and denser. By changing its shape, the sugar groups expose new regions on the surface of the LDL. These exposed regions are more likely to stick to artery walls, helping to build fatty plaques, discovery might also explain why metformin, a widely prescribed type 2 diabetes drug, seems to lead to reduced heart disease risk. Metformin is known to lower blood sugar levels, and this new research shows it may reduce the risk of CHD by blocking the transformation of normal LDL to the more sticky MGmin-LDL( and
    methylglyoxal was found to damage good HDL cholesterol, which removes excess levels of bad cholesterol from the body(
    Cutting advanced glycation end products/AGE intake in half, but maintaining a diet comprised of the same kilocalories and fat, increased the lifespan of animals when compared with animals fed their usual diet(
    role of dietary advanced glycation end products in the risk of Alzheimer's(
    High levels of arsenic in rice have been shown to be associated with elevated genetic damage in humans(
    diet alone can be significant source of arsenic(
    meat cooked at high temperatures:
    meat cooked at high temperatures generates heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that can cause cancer. Further questioning of a subset of 177 people with bladder cancer and 306 people without bladder cancer showed that people with the highest estimated intake of 3 specific HCAs were > 2.5 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than those with low estimated HCA intake. (
    At what temperature do the heterocyclic amines and Advanced Glycation End products start forming? What is the rate of production versus temperature?
    would cooking with a pressure cooker, which would guarantee that all the content of the pressure cooker would go > 100C, but limit the temperature to < 110C and avoid the formation of heterocyclic amines and advanced glycation end products?
    I think using a pressure cooker produces the least amount of heterocyclic amines and Advanced Glycation End products, It would be nice to have research answer these questions.
    Association between processed meat and cardiovascular disease and cancer(
    Diets high in meat may lead to an increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) through intake of carcinogenic compounds created by certain cooking techniques, such as barbecuing and pan-frying. Cooking meat at high temperatures or over an open flame, such as when barbecuing or pan-frying, is known to result in the formation of carcinogens, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo(4,5-b) pyridine (PhIP) and amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f) quinoxaline (MeIQx)(
    Environmental toxicologist Edward Calabrese, whose career research shows that low doses of some chemicals and radiation are benign or even helpful, says he has uncovered evidence that one of the fathers of radiation genetics, Nobel Prize winner Hermann Muller, knowingly lied when he claimed in 1946 that there is no safe level of radiation exposure. Calabrese uncovered correspondence from November 1946 between Muller and Curt Stern at the University of Rochester about a major experiment that had recently evaluated fruit fly germ cell mutations in Stern's laboratory. It failed to support the linear dose-response model at low exposure levels. All of our rules about chemical and low-level radiation are based on the premises that Muller and the National Academy of Sciences' (NAS) committee adopted at that time. Within a year after Muller and his group persuaded the NAS to accept the linear model for gonadal mutations, the practice was extrapolated to somatic cells and cancer. 20 years later, NAS adopted the linear approach for chemicals. Soon thereafter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced it would use the linear model for risk assessment(

    Some nutrients that help combat the damage of advanced glycation end products (AGEs):
    AGE = advanced glycation end product, AGEs = advanced glycation end products
    Effect of curcumin (200 mg/kg body wt) orally for a duration of 8 weeks on the advanced glycation and cross-linking of collagen in diabetic rats(
    Psidium guajava can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases(
    Pyridoxamine as a multifunctional farmaceutical/pharmaceutical: targeting pathogenic glycation and oxidative damage(
    Pyridoxamine, an inhibitor of advanced glycation reactions, also inhibits advanced lipoxidation reactions(
    advanced glycation end products inhibitor, 1-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-6-methyl-1,3-dihydro-furo[3,4-c]pyridine-7-ol (TM2002) ameliorates renal and cardiovascular damage in experimental rat models(
    Yerba mate = Ilex paraguariensis(
    Ilex paraguariensis extracts inhibit AGE formation more efficiently than green tea(
    Protein glycation inhibitors from thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 4 flavonoids: quercetin(, eriodictyol(, 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone and cirsilineol. These known flavonoids suppressed the levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and fructosamines(
    Cinnamon Bark Proanthocyanidins as Reactive Carbonyl Scavengers To Prevent the Formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts(
    Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae can inhibit advanced glycation end product formation, reduce their levels in the frontal cortex, and improve learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats( and
    Compounds that are thought to inhibit AGE formation, at least in vitro, include Vitamin_C, benfotiamine, pyridoxamine, alfa-lipoic/alpha-lipoic acid, taurine, pimagedine, aspirin, carnosine, metformin, pioglitazone, and pentoxifylline( However, there is no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1000 times more commonly in human tissue than any other cross-linking AGE(

    Alitame ( is approved for use in Mexico, Australia, New Zealand and China, has S instead of OCH3 at 1 end of the molecule, thus cannot produce methanol.
    FDA ban on cyclamate does not make any sense and violates people's rights to pursue happiness and to have full sovereignty over their bodies. From:(

    in a 1969 study which found the common 10:1 cyclamate:saccharin mixture to increase the incidence of bladder cancer in rats. The released study was showing that 8 out of 240 rats fed a mixture of saccharin and cyclamates, at levels of humans ingesting 350 cans of diet soda per day, developed bladder tumors. Other studies implicated cyclohexylamine in testicular atrophy in mice. On October 18, 1969, the Food and Drug Administration citing the Delaney Amendment banned its sale in the United States.
    chemical formula of sodium cyclamate: C6H11NHSO2OH + NaOH --> C6H11NHSO2ONa + H2O .
    C6H11NHSO2ONa has a chemical weight of 201.
    Assuming 1g of sodium cyclamate/can or 3g/liter (sweetness of sodium cyclamate saturates around 5-6g/liter, (swiit/cyclamategraf.jpg), so you have no incentive to use more)
    350 g of Na cyclamate would have 350x23/201 g = 40g of Na. A human would die of hypertension on 40g sodium/day.
    Also, the conclusions of the 1969 study do not apply to calcium cyclamate
    If the FDA argument used on 18 october 1969 to ban cyclamate is used on ANY other food/substance, it would also be banned and NOTHING would be allowed:
    Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells: Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1(
    Zebrafish study suggests that vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is an antidote to cyanide poisoning(

    Everything is toxic beyond a certain threshold, even H2O.

    Words of wisdom from Paracelsus(
    Alle Dinge sind Gift, und nichts ohne Gift; allein die Dosis macht, dass ein Ding kein Gift ist.
    All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.

    AMPK = AMP-activated protein kinase
    Some follies of the FDA approval and patent award processes
    US consumers have to pay $3/pill for eszopiclone/lunesta, while the rest of the world pays 0.5$/pill for zopiclone, which is unavailable to US consumers( and

    I think drug approval should be done by an international committee, that should be considered only as a recommendation.
    Adults over 27 should have absolute sovereignty over their bodies. That means the right to have an abortion, euthanasia, buy any chemical for their own use.
    What does the right to pursue happiness mean when the FDA, DEA and smokers on the sidewalk get to decide what goes into my body.
    This is degenerating into tyranny of the majority and tyranny of a bureaucracy appointed by the majority and accountable to nobody.
    Examples of what US consumers miss by the fractured patent drug approval process: metformin
    It was introduced to the United Kingdom in 1958, Canada in 1972, and the United States in 1995. Over the 10-year treatment period, the metformin group gained about 1 kg, the same as the dietary advice group, while the sulfonylureas group gained 3 kg, and the insulin group, 6 kg
    The risk of pancreatic cancer in study participants having taken metformin was found to be 62% lower than in participants never having taken it, whereas participants that had used insulin or secretagogues (such as the sulfonylureas) were found to have a 5-fold and 2.5-fold higher risk of pancreatic cancer, respectively, compared to participants that had been treated with neither(

    metformin was available in the United Kingdom 37 years before the United States In 2012, with a Walgreens card, 90 1000mg metformin cost $5
    A research report shows that the widely-prescribed diabetes medication metformin works on AMP kinase by directly inhibiting AMP deaminase, thereby increasing cellular AMP kinase(,, and
    Popular diabetes drug metformin does not improve survival rates after cancer, researchers found no significant statistical correlation between cumulative use of metformin and death from all causes or a significant reduction in deaths due to breast cancer(

    1 of the key pathways in AMPK's regulation of fatty acid oxidation is the phosphorylation/fosforylation and inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase( and

    As a consequence, metformin contributes to keeping acetyl-CoA carboxylase inactive and preventing the synthesis of Malonyl-CoA. Insulin does the opposite: When insulin binds to its receptors on the cellular membrane, it activates a phosphatase to dephosphorylate the enzyme; thereby removing the inhibitory effect( search for insulin)

    Malonyl CoA inhibits fatty acids from associating with L-carnitine by regulating the enzyme L-carnitine acyltransferase, thereby preventing them from entering the mitochondria where fatty acid oxidation and degradation occur(

    A number of recent studies suggest that the botanical alkaloid berberine, also activates AMPK and glucose transport in muscle Berberine acutely inhibits insulin secretion from beta-cells through 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate signaling pathway(

    The sooner people with diabetes start taking metformin, the longer the drug remains effective(

    anti-diabetic drug Metformin and AICAR, used to combat obesity, can prevent the hepatitis C virus from replicating in the body(

    Both the metformin and lifestyle interventions were linked to reductions in the number of small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, which carry cholesterol that may contribute to plaque formation, and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the form of cholesterol that reduces heart disease risk(

    metformin, appears to selectively kill cancer stem cells in culture dishes and in mice longer than chemotherapy alone by targeting cancer stem cells(

    new way to boost immune memory metformin increases T-cell memory as well as the ensuing protective immunity of an experimental anti-cancer vaccine(

    Metformin Drug Kills Some Cancer Cells(

    long-term use of the drug metformin for Type-2 diabetes reduces the risk of diabetes-associated cancers, such as breast cancers(

    widely used diabetes drug metformin comes with a rather unexpected and alluring side effect: it encourages the growth of new neurons in the brain(

    Metformin can substantially reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease in diabetes(

    metformin, which is commonly used to control blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes, also substantially reduced the effects of uveitis, an inflammation of the tissues just below the outer surface of the eyeball(
    Association of Geroprotective Effects of Metformin and Risk of Open-Angle Glaucoma in Persons With Diabetes Mellitus(

    Metformin, a drug widely used to treat Type 2 diabetes, may help to prevent primary liver cancer(

    low doses of the antidiabetic drug metformin may effectively destroy cancer stem cells(

    diabetes medicine metformin can have protective effects on the heart(

    metformin, which is commonly used to control blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes, also substantially reduced the effects of uveitis, an inflammation of the tissues just below the outer surface of the eyeball. According to the researchers, metformin works by activating an enzyme called AMPK, which in turn damps down the activity of the protein NF-kappa B. The inhibition of NF-kappa B suppresses the production of inflammatory signaling molecules(

    Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use. After more than 50 years of use of metformin, we have come to know that metformin induced vit B12 deficiency can cause neuropathy; forcing to change the recommendation from annual screening of vitamin B12 levels to annual supplementation of vit B(12)(

    diabetes drug metformin has an effect against one of the main causes of the Alzheimer's disease(

    antidiabetic drug metformin reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines that normally activate the immune system, but if overproduced can lead to pathological inflammation, a condition that both damages tissues in aging and favors tumor growth(

    Study reveals how diabetes drug metformin delays ageing in worms, when they added an excess of sugar to the diet, the team found that the life-extending effects of metformin were cancelled out(

    dextrose/glucose metabolite glucose 6-phosphate/glucose 6-fosfat (G6P) overload can damage heart according to UTHealth research, 2 drugs, rapamycin (an immunosuppressant also inhibits a protein kinase complex known as mTORC1 or mammalian target of rapamycin, and this appears to provide most of the beneficial effects of the drug (including life-lengthening in animal studies)) and metformin (a diabetes medication) disrupt signaling of glucose 6-phosphate/glucose 6-fosfat and improved cardiac power in small animal studies( , , and )

    cell mass was increased approximately 40% in the pancreases of deceased organ donors who had Type 2 diabetes and who had been treated with incretin therapy(

    Metformin (Glucofag/Glucophag) reduces the growth of pancreatic cancer, metformin disrupts a crosstalk between insulin receptor and other growth-factor signaling systems in human pancreatic cancer cells(

    Metformin inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer xenografts, metformin given once daily intraperitoneally at various doses (50-250 mg/kg) to nude mice inhibited the growth of PANC-1 xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. A significant effect of metformin was obtained at 50 mg/kg and maximal effect at 200 mg/kg. Metformin also inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer xenografts when administered orally (2.5 mg/mL) either before or after tumor implantation(

    Metformin Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell and Tumor Growth and Downregulates Sp Transcription Factors(
    Pancreatic cancer stem cells could be suffocated by an anti-diabetic drug metformin(

    metformin, a drug for treating diabetes, can also be used to boost the efficacy of tuberculosis medication without inducing drug resistance(
    Metformin inhibits food intake and neuropeptide Y gene expression in the hypothalamus(
    extract of onion bulb, Allium cepa, strongly lowered high blood glucose (sugar) and total cholesterol levels in diabetic rats when given with the antidiabetic drug metformin(
    Metformin increases total serum homocysteine levels in non-diabetic male patients with coronary heart disease. After 12 and 40 weeks of metformin treatment, total homocysteine levels increased moderately but significantly by 7.2% (p < 0.05) and 13.8% (p < 0.05) in the metformin group relative to the control group, whereas serum vitamin B12 levels decreased by 13.4% (p < 0.0005) and 17.7% (p < 0.0005), respectively. Serum folate levels did not change after 12 weeks, but decreased by 8.0% after 40 weeks (p = 0.061) relative to the control group(
    Association of Metformin, Elevated Homocysteine. Median serum cobalamin was significantly lower in the metformin-treated group (231 vs. 486 pmol/l; U = 299.0, P < 0.001) with frank deficiency in 18 patients (31%) compared with 2 (3%) in the non–metformin-treated group (P < 0.001). Median fasting serum homocysteine was significantly higher in the metformin-treated group (11.6 vs. 8.4 micromol/l; U = 454.0, P < 0.001) with upregulation of Hcy in 15 patients versus 1 patient (P < 0.001)(
    metformin article on
    analysis of 204 studies involving more than 1.4 million people suggests that metformin, the most frequently prescribed stand-alone drug for type 2 diabetes, reduces the relative risk of a patient dying from heart disease by about 30 to 40% compared to its closest competitor drug, sulfonylurea(
    Combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin exhibits synergistic effects against the development of early colon neoplasia. They suggest that the combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin may represent a novel strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.(
    Vitamin D3 potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of metformin in DU145 human prostate cancer cells mediated by AMPK/mTOR signalling pathway(
    Cimetidine treats indigestion by blocking histamine receptors in the gut, which decreases the production of gastric acid. It also appears to block histamine receptors in cancer cells, as well as supporting the immune system's defences against cancer. Cimetidine has been shown to have positive effects in colorectal and gastric cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma.(
    cimetidine inhibits cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells and prevents metastasis by blocking E-selectin expression(

    I tried to put the following on ( to make information more complete, they were deleted due very strict policy against copy/paste
    Inhibition of cytomegalovirus replication by inhibitors of (glucose to fatty acid conversion enzymes)
    HCMV = human cytomegalovirus(
    ACC = acetyl-CoA carboxylase (catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA, requires biotin (
    TOFA = 5-tetradecyloxy-2-furoic acid
    C75 = trans-4-carboxy-5-octyl-3-methylene-butyrolactone
    FAS = fatty acid synthase(
    Treatment (10 mg ml-1 or 10g l-1) with 5-tetradecyloxy-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an ACC inhibitor, resulted in a more than 1000-fold reduction in HCMV replication. C75 (trans-4-carboxy-5-octyl-3-methylene-butyrolactone), an inhibitor of FAS, resulted in a more than 100-fold effect at the same dose enzymes that build fatty acids, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS).
    Many viruses, including influenza, HIV and hepatitis, use those same fatty acids to build instead their viral envelopes, outer coatings that help them penetrate human cells.
    To investigate whether this requirement extended to other enveloped viruses, the team measured influenza A replication in the presence of the same TOFA and FAS inhibitors, and found similar reductions in replication. Influenza A has little in common with HCMV except for its lipid envelope.
    Extensive clinical testing would be needed to draw conclusions about the safety of TOFA and C75, or similar compounds, as antiviral treatment. That said, the team took an early look at toxicity, exposing uninfected fibroblasts to C75 or TOFA for 96 hours. They found that the drugs blocked HCMV replication without causing cell toxicity or self-destruction (apoptosis).( , and
    Paracetamol/Tylenol (USA), Panadol (Australia), Acetaminofen/Acetaminophen (3 times a day; equivalent to 3990 mg per day) is no better than placebo at speeding recovery from acute episodes of lower back pain or improving pain levels, function, sleep, or quality of life.
    The Paracetamol for Low-Back Pain Study (PACE) randomly assigned 1652 individuals (average age 45 years) with acute low-back pain from 235 primary care centres in Sydney, Australia to receive up to 4 weeks of paracetamol in regular doses (3 times a day; equivalent to 3990 mg per day), paracetamol as needed (maximum 4000 mg per day), or placebo. All participants received advice and reassurance and were followed-up for 3 months. No differences in the number of days to recovery were found between the treatment groups, Median time to recovery was 17 days in the regular paracetamol group, 17 days in the as-needed paracetamol group, and 16 days in the placebo group. Paracetamol also had no effect on short-term pain levels, disability, function, sleep quality, or quality of life. The number of participants reporting adverse events was similar between the groups( and
    LBP = low back pain
    Among patients with acute, low back pain presenting to an emergency department, neither the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen combined with oxycodone, acetaminofen/acetaminophen/paracetamol or the muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine provided better pain relief or improvement in functional outcomes than naproxen combined with placebo, randomly assigned 323 patients who presented to an emergency department with nontraumatic, nonradicular LBP of 2 weeks' duration or less to receive a 10-day course of naproxen + placebo (n = 107); naproxen + cyclobenzaprine (5 mg) (n = 108); or naproxen + oxycodone, 5 mg acetaminofen/acetaminophen/paracetamol, 325 mg (n = 108). Participants were instructed to take 1 or 2 of these tablets every 8 hours, as needed for LBP; naproxen, 500 mg, was to be taken twice a day. Patients also received a standardized 10-minute LBP educational session prior to discharge(
    Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminofen/acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or other symptoms. The trial included adults between 18 and 65 years of age with confirmed influenza infections who were treated with the maximum recommended dose of paracetamol or placebo for five days. Participants were monitored for up to 14 days.(
    Researchers have provided new evidence that developing asthma can be linked to pregnant women and infants being exposed to paracetamol(
    acetaminofen/acetaminophen, or paracetamol, could be inhibiting the brain's error-detection ability and the brain response associated with detecting/making errors(
    long-term use of acetaminofen/acetaminophen, or paracetamol during pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse effects on child development(,7372:1:0:0:::0:0&Content_6897=6729:107905::1:6896:1:::0:0)
    paracetamol/acetaminofen/acetaminophen, which is used extensively during pregnancy, has a strong association with autism spectrum symptoms in boys and for both genders in relation to attention-related and hyperactivity symptoms(

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    news in metric from , who needs the garbage of foot/pound, a system invented by idiots and fools to be used exclusively by idiots and fools(

    email: gct @at@ dslextreme .H2O remove blanks and other obvious characters and replace h2o with com